Welcome to the capital of Rajasthan, Jaipur.

Jaipur, known as the Pink City, The Paris of India, Heritage City, Gulabi Nagar etc. has specific importance on the Tourist map of the world.

The city of today has emerged as one of the most sought after tourist destination of the world. Jaipur is the place of fascination for many Indians as well as foreigners. Every one with a passion for tourism would certainly like to visit it at least once in his life. Come, let us look at the details about Jaipur so that you may enjoy your excursion to Jaipur.

Jaipur city has its own tales and anecdotes that are marvellous and fabulous. You will be mesmerished by the stories and amazed at the technological marvels that this city comprises within its four walls.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Dhundhara kingdom was founded by Kachhawah dynasty in the areas adjoing Jaipur, The Kachhawahs link the origin of their clan to the 'Sun' tradition of ancient India and believe themselves to be the descendants of Kush, one of the twin sons of Lord Rama, the ruler of the ancient kingdom of Ayodhya. In the latter half of the 10th century, Dulha (Dhola) Rai, an heir apparent of Kachhawah dynasty founded the Dhundhara kingdom around the hills of Amer. Gradually this dynasty became prominent and played a significant role in the expansion of the Mughal Empire. The town of Amber (now called Amer) was under the rule of great Man Singh (1590-1614 A.D.) who was the Commander of the Mughal army during the reign of Akbar.

In 1700 A.D. Jai Singh the grandson of Raja Ram Singh (1667-1688 A.D.), annexed the throne at the tender age of 13 years. He was a powerful commander of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. A man of enormous abilities, a scholar with varied tastes, a renowned astronomer, Jai Singh was awarded the title Sawai (a person who is one-and-a-quarter times greater than his ancestors) by Aurangzeb. After this the rulers of Amber started using title 'Sawai' before their names.

THE ESTABLISHMENT

The war of succession after the death of Aurangzeb raised the question of defence of Amber which was likely to be attacked by successful Mughal King Bahadur Shah. In addition to this, the ever-increasing population of Amer posed a serious problem which forced Sawai Jai Singh to find a solution. The solution came in the form of the first planned city of nothern India.

The ancient city can be traced back to 1699, when Maharaja Jai Singh II, ascended the Amber throne. His flair for Mathematics and Astronomy was legendary and he was not only a great scholar but also a fine soldier, builder and a poet. Jai Singh decided to shift his capital from the rugged hills of Amber to the present site. Thus the foundation stone of the new capital of Amber state was laid on 18th November, 1727 and the city was named Jaipur, after its founder Jai Singh.

king Jai Singh was nicknamed Raj Rajeashwar, Shri Rajadhiraj, Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1722 because he had won a battle against the Jats of Bharatpur.

Construction/Architecture, The City Arrangements, Main Gateways, Choupads and City Market

The design of the city was entrusted to a young and talented Bengali archtitect, Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, who shaped the plan and ideas of Jai Singh.

The Architecture of Jaipur is fully based on Indian style and it is planned with great skill and prudence. It is perhaps the first planned city of India and was laid with great precision on the basis of the principles of "Shilp Shastra" the ancient Hindu treatise on Architecture.

The city contains many Palaces, Temples, Chaupads (large intersections), Markets, Chowks, Chobaras, Durgs (forts) and Gates (poles). These constructions symbolise the old values of Indian heritage as well as those of Modern India.

CHOUPADS

The main feature of Jaipur is that the lanes and roads are wide and cut each other at 90o (right angle). Lanes meet the Chourahas at right angles too. The city has three Choupads, on  the crossing of the roads which are made with the state of art technology and do not cause any discomfort to the wayfarers. All the three Choupads are in a straight line. If we look towards Chandpole gate from Galta hill we see a beautiful scene of the three Choupads. At present these are called as Choti Choupad, Bari Choupad and Ramganj Choupad. The Jaipur roads are made according to the geometrical and mathematical formulae and are of equal size and one geometrical pattern.

To provide a security cover seven big gateways were built around Jaipur city. People say that during the princely rule these gateways were opened and closed at fixed hours.

The city had a 'Parkota' (city wall) as was the contemporary practice, surrounding the city coupled with the 'guard Chowkies' for the security watch. The buildings on both the sides of the roads had terraces giving a visual openess and also serving a meaningful purpose as viewing galleries for the general public on the occasion of processions and festivals.

SEVEN GATEWAYS

In the East there is Surajpole Gate and in the South - Ghat Gate (Shivpole), Sanganeri Gate (Rampole), New Gate (Manpole) and Ajmeri Gate (Kishanpole). In the West is Chandpole, and in the North Jorawar Singh Gate (Dhruvpole). Besides these main gateways there are other gates also called Gulta Gate, Gangapole, Singhpole (Indira Bazar), and Chaar Darvaza.

Old Jaipur city was surrounded by a wall but now-a-days the city has extended tremendously so much so that the old city looks smaller in comparison to the new Jaipur city. Outside the old city several new colonies have developed and a lot of construction work is going on. Most of the government offices, schools and colleges, parks, temples, hospitals have been built in the new city.

Sawai Jai Singh visioned the city of Jaipur not only as an administrative and political unit but also as a prime centre of business. To fulfil this vision, markets were built on both sides of the main roads, and shops of equal depth and width were made.

Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh also continued the tradition of State's interest in the field of urban development and worked for modern amenities like schools, street lighting, water supply etc. He was an ardent environmentalist and constructed the first Public park of the city "Ram Niwas Garden." He initiated and conceptualised the works like SMS Hospital, Maharaja and Maharani Colleges, MGD School and the building now housing the State Secretariat.